Porcelain represents the foundation of the ceramics discipline and one of the most complex ceramic materials. Composed primarily of clay, feldspar, and quartz, porcelains are heat-treated to form a mixture of glass and crystalline phases. This review focuses on raw materials, processing, heat treatment, and mechanical behavior. Because of the complexities of the porcelain system and despite the substantial amount of research already conducted within the field, there remain significant opportunities for research
and study, particularly in the areas of raw material understanding, processing science, and phase and microstructure evolution.