Ceramics are products made from inorganic, nonmetallic materials which are first shaped and subsequently brought to final body hardness by the action of heat. Depending upon the nature of raw materials and the techniques used in processing the ceramics are classified under two major groups as “Traditional” or “Modern.” Traditional group comprise the ceramic materials produced basically from earthy raw materials available in the nature. Different types of porcelain, china, earthenware, wall tiles, floor tiles, and sanitary ware which we use as common household ceramics are among the examples belonging to this class.
The modern ceramics, which possess a wide range of desirable technical and engineering properties, are manufactured from raw materials that are produced synthetically by special chemical and thermal techniques. Generally the shaping and firing processes used in their production are more sophisticated and finely tuned. They possess microstructures with controlled grain size and chemistry. Therefore, the properties attainable in various members of this class of ceramics, such as hardness, strength, heat response, electrical conductivity, magnetic and optical behavior have been the driving force of the advancements in our contemporary world.